Beaches, parks and backyard play: Summer is about fun in the sun. But there’s nothing fun about a sunburned baby. Little ones are especially vulnerable to the sun’s burning rays. According to the Skin Cancer Foundation, a single blistering sunburn in childhood more than doubles the risk of developing melanoma later in life. The American Academy of Pediatrics reports that most parents aren’t doing enough to protect small children from sunburn—sunscreens are often applied incorrectly leaving little ones exposed to skin damage. Here’s how to keep your little one happy and safe this summer.

baby innertube

The label game
With everything from creams and sprays to goggles and glasses boasting sun protection, labels can get confusing. The acronym SPF stands for sun protection factor, and it represents the amount of time the product protects skin from burning.

Ultraviolet protective factor, or UPF, refers to the amount of ultraviolet radiation that reaches the skin. When choosing sun-safe products, look for an SPF of at least 15, which keeps skin unburned 15 times longer than skin without protection, or a UPF of 30 or higher, which lets through only one out of every 30 UV units.

Made in the shade
For babies 6 months old and younger, the safest sun is no sun; per the Skin Cancer Foundation, babies under 6 months generally shouldn’t be exposed to direct sunlight. Avoid catching rays during peak exposure hours between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., stay in the shade when you’re outside, and invest in a durable umbrella or pop-up shade tent for the beach or pool.

Sunblock shock
Most babies over 2 months old can safely wear sunscreen (but again, babies this young should be kept out of direct sunlight). Natural sunblocks, like those made by California Baby, contain zinc oxide or titanium dioxide, ingredients commonly used in diaper rash creams and are well-tolerated by most babies. These physical sunblocks actually block UV light, while chemical or conventional sunscreens, like those made by Coppertone, work by absorbing UV light. Either type works well. Conventional and physical sunscreens can also be layered to create a more effective, lasting sunlight barrier.

Apply sunscreen to your baby before leaving the house. The UV filters need 20-30 minutes to form a protective layer on the skin, and sunscreen won’t adhere as well once your baby gets sweaty or damp. Always reapply sunscreen, even those marked “waterproof,” after swimming and toweling off. And don’t forget these commonly burned hotspots: the nose, the head (particularly on fair-skinned babes or those without hair), and the tops of the hands and feet.

Functional fashion
Photoprotective clothing is a boon for babies, especially when parents are leery about applying sunscreen to small infants. Lightweight, long-sleeved clothing can offer protection from the sun’s rays, but take note: a basic white cotton tee only offers an UPF value of about seven. Tightly-woven, darker fabrics let through less sunlight, therefore offering more protection—denim, canvas, and fabrics labeled with a UPF value of 30-plus are good bets. To increase the shade-factor in your baby’s wardrobe, look for a laundry additive called Sun Guard. It contains the protective agent Tinosorb, which ramps up UPF value of clothing and lasts through 20 washes.

baby sunhat

Look for sunhats with a brim of at least three inches, sunglasses that wrap around the child’s face (wraparound shades increase sun protection by 5 percent) and a long-sleeved cover-up for baby to wear once pool time is through. And don’t forget baby gear and accessories: your stroller’s umbrella, your baby carrier’s hood and a receiving blanket tucked into your diaper bag can offer extra protection to help keep your summer sunny side up.

Malia Jacobson is a nationally published journalist and mom of three. Her latest book is Sleep Tight, Every Night: Helping Toddlers and Preschoolers Sleep Well Without Tears, Tricks, and Tirades.